Ethnicity: African American
Colors: Black, Red, Green
Symbols: Five-Pointed Star; Pyramid w/20 Bricks and Rising Sun; 3rd Eye; Number 7; Sword
Alias(es): Almighty Black P. Stone Nation (BPSN), Black Stones, Brothers, Moes, Stones
Factions: Apache Stones, Jabari Stones, Jet Black Stones, Maniac Stones, No Limit Stones, Rubenite Stones, Titanic Stones, Blood P. Stones Jungles, Blood Stones, Blood Stone Villians, Ancient Stones, others
Previously Known As: Blackstone Rangers, Almighty Black P. Stone Nation, El Rukns
Estimated Membership: 20,000
Founder(s): Jeff Fort, a.k.a. “Chief Malik” and Eugene Hairston a.k.a.”Chief Bull”
Historical Overview: The entity known today as the Black P. Stone Nation originated in the Woodlawn community on Chicago’s South Side as the Blackstone Rangers . It has been contended that the Rangers actually formed in the St. Charles Reform School, a juvenile corrections facility, in the time frame from 1957 to 1960 (Knox, 2003). Nevertheless, once released (if the latter assessment is true), the Rangers frequented the intersection of East 64th Street to East Marquette (66th) Street and South Blackstone Avenue. It would seem more logical to assume that the gang actually formed on Blackstone, seeing as their moniker is adopted from that street. Also, it should be noted that prior to the formation of the Blackstone Rangers, there was a gang called the Blackstone Raiders, which had already been in existence since at least the mid-1950s. The Blackstone Raiders were under the leadership of Joel “Fox” Hampton. Another source asserts ,”by March 1958 the Blackstone Raiders were known as the Rangers and the leadership had passed to Eugene Hairston” (http://www.geocite.com/jeff_fort/chapter1.html) . The Blackstones were formed by a group of ten-to-fifteen youths, led by Eugene Hairston and Jeff Fort. Fort would later be known in gang circles as “Angel,” “Chief Prince,” “Malik,” “Imam Abdul Malik Ka’bah,” and finally, “Chief Malik.” Hairston’s aliases were “Bull,” “King Bull,” and “Chief Bull.”
Though Fort was younger and initially acted as second-in-command of the Blackstones, he was extremely cunning and gifted in leadership abilities. These traits would prove themselves as he later positioned himself as the gang’s sole chief. Jeff Fort was born February 20, 1947 in Aberdeen, Mississippi. The second oldest of ten children, his family moved to Chicago in 1955. After initially renting a home on 22nd & Cottage Grove, the Forts moved to 6536 South Blackstone Avenue in the Woodlawn neighborhood. At the time, Woodlawn was experiencing ethnic change as African American families began to displace middle-class Caucasians.
Throughout the early 1960s, the Blackstones encountered various area clubs. They established a reputation as one of the fiercest street gangs in the city and quickly began to make their presence felt on the South Side. Before gangs were frequently using pistols and high-powered automatic weapons to deal with their enemies, the Stones were. Before gangs became actively involved in prostitution, extortion, and drug-dealing, the Stones did.
In about 1966 (possibly 1967), Fort and Hairston united several Chicago-land street gangs into what can best be described as a “street confederacy” under their leadership. This entity would be known as the Almighty Black P. Stone Nation (ABPSN) and its leaders would be known as the “Main 21.” Prior to the unification, each gang had its own moniker, but upon joining the Nation, each would incorporate the moniker “Stone(s)” or “Ranger(s)” into their title. The groups included the Apache Stones, Cherokee Stones, Cobra Stones, Cossack Stones, Dixmoor Rangers, Egyptian Stones, FBI Rangers, Gangster Stones, Golden Rangers, Gypsy Rangers, Imperial Rangers, Mafia Rangers, Maniac Rangers, Noble Stones, Nomad Stones, Nova Stones, Pimp Stones, Rolling Stones, Russian Rangers, Syndicate Rangers, Traveling Rangers, 4 Corners, and 113th Street Rangers. Other lesser-known factions would be formed in the following years. With this confederation, the Stones instantly transformed from a group of thugs to a “nation.” The gang controlled roughly everything from Cermak to 135th Street, Cottage Grove to the lake, in addition to territory in the Robert Taylor Homes and Cabrini Green as well as sections on the west side.
A key figure in the evolution and organization of the Almighty Black P. Stones was Reverend John Fry of First Presbyterian Church, located at 64th & Kenwood. Fry was instrumental in “legitimizing” the Stones into a political activist group. He later wrote an account of his dealings with the Rangers in Locked Out Americans: A Memoir (1973).
“Rev. John Fry lives, today, in Scottsdale, Arizona. Rev. Fry left Chicago after the federal investigation into the Blackstone Ranger's gang by federal authorities over the issue of federal funds being abused by the gang” (Knox, 2003).
Throughout the 1960s, the Rangers’ strongest enemy were the Disciples. There were several Disciple factions, that in engaged in a brutally violent war with Stones, most prominently, the Woodlawn Disciples. The Disciples were a coalition of gangs controlled by David Barksdale. Barksdale was shot by members of the Stones in 1969. He later died of complications due to the gunshot wound(s) in 1974.
The Rangers also clashed with the Black Panther Party. While the Panthers were attempting to rid the black community of drugs and gang warfare, and Stones were the primary culprit of said offenses on the south side. In 1968, the two groups became engaged in a war when a Black Stone member shot a Panther to death. The tension culminated at a meeting between the Panthers and Stones: “In December 1968, Chicago Panther leader Fred Hampton, "information minister" Bobby Rush and other Panther leaders showed up at Fort's headquarters. Fort brought the men inside and told them that if the Panthers wanted to demonstrate their "power," he'd show them his. After a signal from Fort, some 100 Rangers filed into the room, two or three at a time, brandishing sawed-off shotguns, machine guns and a whole array of firearms. Fort then met privately with Hampton and Rush and a couple of members of the Main 21. After (unsuccessfully) trying to scare the crap out of the Panthers, Fort now talked earnestly about the two groups joining forces” (Ruchula, 2005). It was later learned that the Stone-Panther feud was instigated by FBI director J. Edgar Hoover’s COINTELPRO program.
Some allege that Fort was a knowing participant in the plot to bring down the Panthers. Evidence of this is present in his invitation to attend President Richard Nixon’s inauguration ceremony in 1969. Fort sent two of his underlings, Henry Cogwell and Bobby Jennings.
First Presbyterian’s relationship with the Stones formally began in 1966. Fry along with First Presbyterian’s staff director Charles Lapaglia actively involved themselves with the Blackstones, as well as the Woodlawn community at large. Ostensibly, the purpose of this program was to curb violence in Woodlawn. In January 1966, Rev. Fry invited Fort and Hairston, the “two chiefs,” to a meeting. At the meeting, Hairston and Fort decided to divide the leadership of the Rangers with Hairston to preside over the older members while Fort was to preside over the younger members. Hairston’s group would retain the Blackstones moniker and Fort’s group was to be known as Black Princes. This concept was discussed with other Stones but never took a firm hold. Instead, the moniker was amalgamated into Black Prince Stones. Because most members of the gang could not spell the word Prince correctly, the letter P was used instead. The P would later reflect other titles depending on the time and circumstance, including Power, Prosperity, People, and Peace. By 1967, the group was formally known as the Almighty Black P. Stone Nation.
In 1968 the Stones received a $937,000 grant from the Office of Economic Opportunity. Apparently, the grant was a form of appeasement by the bureaucracy, whose intent was to work through “real black community leaders” in an effort to create positive change within the ghetto. Jerome Bernstein was the representative of the OEO and the responsible party for the grant. His decision to provide the Stones with the lucrative job program fostered their growth and appetite for power. The funding was provided to The Woodlawn Organization’s (TWO) “Job-Training Program.” Senator John McClellen investigated the government’s funding of TWO through the OEO in the 1960s and his findings resulted in an undeniable fact. The federal money was used to “bankroll criminality.” (New Republic, 1968).
Despite the federal grant, 1968 would be a perilous year for the Stones. “In September Gene Hairston was arrested and charged with murder. In October Jeff Fort was arrested and charged with murder. In November five Mains were arrested and charged with rape. Each of these police actions was related in the abundant press coverage of the Job-Training Project” (Fry, 1973: p. 106). The McClellen hearings, along with the arrests of Stone leaders persuaded private employers –who were pivotal to the success of the JTP—to pull out of the Program. Hairston would be convicted of conspiracy, but not murder. Fort and the other gang leaders would have their charges dropped due to lack of sufficient evidence.
In 1969, the City of Chicago --at the behest of Mayor Richard J. Daley and State’s Attorney Edward Hanrahan-- declared a “war on gangs” and released a report titled Organized Youth Crime in Chicago. The Stones commanded an 18-paged profile, in which the gang’s criminality and misuse of government funds was thoroughly discussed. “The report places the Ranger participation in The Woodlawn Organization (TWO) funded Job Training Program under the category of extortion” (Fry, 1973: p. 67).
In January 1970, Jeff Fort was arrested was arrested on an aggravated battery charge after Fort ordered lieutenants Mickey Cogwell and Robert Jennings to beat former gang member Willie Harris. Fort was bailed out of jail soon afterward and according to the Chicago Tribune, the money was given from a rich individual through the First Presbyterian Church, the gang’s former headquarters.
In the same month, the Stones backed the Coalition for United Community Action, a group that protested the denial of job of opportunities for blacks in the building trades. They were successful in closing down over twenty construction sites with contract valued at more than 80 millions dollars on the south and west sides. (Chicago Tribune, Jan 4, 1970).
Also in January 1970, Leonard Sengali, the BPSN spokesman, was charged with murder (he may have charged as early as November 1969). He was succeeded by information minister, “Prince Rueben” (Randy Dillard?) according to the Tribune, who spoke with the media after a Stone shot a Galiant Gent-which was a Disciple offshoot-- member on the CTA bus with a sawed off shotgun.
In May 1970, The Blackstones attempted to extort Sammy Davis Jr. , asking for $150,000 to re-open the Sammy Davis Jr. Liquor store in Dixmoor as well as other businesses. Davis had already given the Stones and Operation Breadbasket money. The Stones sent “emissary” Charles “Reico” Cranshaw to request the money from Davis. The gang was apparently siphoning profits from the store and worked with organized crime (the “black mafia”) to do so. Davis refused, stating that he had lost $160,000 in the store. He alerted authorities and expressed fear for his life to thwart the Stone’s extortions attempt.
In June 1970, black leaders met with Jeff Fort to air grievance against violence and extortion. Among the black leaders were Edwin C. Berry, executive director of the Chicago Urban League, Alderman Ralph Metcalfe, and officials from Cosmopolitan Chamber of Commerce.
On May 5th, 1972, Fort was sentenced to 3 to 5 years on two counts of bail jumping. On May 23rd, Fort was sentenced to five years for conspiracy to defraud the government. Also convicted of conspiracy of defraud was Fletcher Pugh, Henry “Mickey Cobb” Cogwell, Charles Edward Bey, and Robert Johnson. Fort was sentenced to time in the Leavenworth, Texas federal prison. While incarcerated, Henry “Mickey Cobb” Cogwell ran the street operations for the gang. Cogwell’s gang, the Cobra Stones, was probably the largest Stone faction at this time. Cogwell was an educated, savvy boss, who acted as the gang’s spokesman in media coverage and also became actively involved in workers unions. He wanted to steer the Stones in a positive direction and engage in real political activism. The 1970s would usher in major change for the organization but they would continue to involve themselves in criminal activity and violence ensued.
In March 1973, high-ranking Stone member, Charles Edward Bey, was shot by three other members of the gang: Lawrence Cain, Samuel Knox, and Ellis Walker. This might have been the beginning of serious infighting for positions of power.
In April 1974, Bennie Fort, younger brother of Jeff, was shot along with his companion Bernard Green. “Homicide and gang crime investigators [. . .] said Bennie Fort had taken over the reigns of the Black P. Stone Nation while his brother is serving a prison term” (Chicago Tribune, April 18th, 1974.
In 1976, after his release from prison, Fort established supreme control over the ABPSN. He moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and there became affiliated with the Moorish Science Temple (MST). Some allege the MST rejected Fort’s request to join their ranks. Bull Hairston established his own faction: the Titanic Stones. The following year, Fort started the El Rukns. The El Rukns, which in Arabic translates into “the Stones,” were apparently conceived by Fort during his incarceration and influence by the Moorish Science Temple (there were many members of this pseudo religious organization within the Illinois correctional facilities at the time). By transforming his gang into a theological fraternal order, Fort hoped to legitimize them in eyes of the public. The Rukns would become a highly organized and well criminally financed powerhouse in the 1980s. They would also come very close to engaging in terrorist activities.
After Fort transformed his nation in 1977, he once again consolidated his power by allegedly having Cogwell killed, though some contend that his murder was carried out with orders from the Outfit- Chicago’s organized crime underworld. In February 1977, Cogwell was ambushed and killed on the south side. The Cobra Stones then splintered away from the Black P. Stones (now El Rukns) and later adopted the first name of their slain leader, becoming the Mickey Cobras. Nevertheless, the gang would join the El Rukn sponsored People alliance in the late 1970s.
The El Rukns were the principle founder of the People alliance. Conventional sources indicate that the alliance was formed shortly after the Folks alliance, an alliance probably conceived by Black Gangster Disciple chief Larry Hoover in about 1978. However, a Chicago Tribune article places the formation of the People, also known as Brothers, at 1983. It’s more likely the Brothers formed in 1978, and certainly no later than 1980.
One of the more fascinating aspects of the Rl Rukns and the formation of the People was the adoption of Islamic doctrine into the gang’s internal manifesto, or “constitution.” Along the Rukns, the Vice Lords and Mickey Cobras also adopted the mutated Islamic doctrine in their internal documents and manifesto, now more commonly referred to as literature, or “lit.” This indoctrinated was carried over in the gang’s internal literature as they helped form the People alliance in 1978.
The Rukns purchased property and began to open money-laundering businesses. They even purchased a church a converted it into a gang headquarters/quasi religious lodge officially known as the Temple, but unofficially called “the Fort.” This gang refuge, located on 39th & Drexel, was complete with escape tunnel and constantly manned with armed guards.
In the 1980s, The Rukns started a quasi-political group called the Martin Luther King Movement, which clashed with neo-Nazis. The gang was probably on its way back into the political realm when the feds finally began to dismantle the organization by prosecuting its members on a whole slew of charges.
In March 1986 the FBI, ATF, and Chicago Police Department in a joint Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force began to wiretap the El Rukns headquarters in Chicago, Illinois and Bastrop, Texas, to investigate illegal activities of the gang.
“In late March of 1986, a series of conversations were intercepted that indicated the El Rukns were involved in negotiations with the government of Libya. At this point, the ‘Rukbom’ investigation was initiated by Chicago’s Joint Terrorism Task Force.The subsequent investigation revealed that several El Rukns were in Libya to offer their services for terrorist acts in the United States in return for money. Through use of an FBI Undercover Agent (UCA), the El Rukns were sold two inert Light Anti-tank weapons (Law Rockets) in the early part of August, 1986. On August 5th, 1986, simultaneous searches were conducted at the Chicago El Rukn headquarters and a Chicago El Rukns safehouse. The two Law Rockets sold to the El Rukns and 35 other weapons were found in the basement of the Chicago safe-house (FBI FOIA).
The investigations also revealed that the El Rukns numbered at about 200 members, far less than the their previous entity, the Black P. Stone Nation. The Rukns were probably the “upper tier” organization and operated more like an organized crime family than a street gang. Indeed, members of Bull’s faction, the Titanic Stones, had been clashing the El Rukns throughout the 80’s. There is also evidence that some of the original Blackstone faction reverted to their previous moniker, such as the Apache Rangers (who were previously Apache Stones). New factions would also spring up during the time when the Rukns existed as the upper echelon “faction,” including the Jet Black Stones, Ancient Stones, and Corner Stones.
“On October 27, 1989, a Federal Grand Jury in the Northern Districit of Illinois (NDI returned two separate indictments charging a total of 65 members and associates of the El Rukn Street Gang with racketeering, conspiracy, murder, attempted murder, conspiracy to murder, witness intimidation and retaliation, kidnapping, obstruction of justice, drugs, and firearms violations” as a result of Operation RUKBOM (FOIA).
Additionally, the feds seized the headquarters, known as “The Fort” or “Grand Temple” and turned it over to the state who had it demolished to make way for a park. 56 El Rukn leaders and affiliates were convicted in a federal indictment from 1989 to 1997. Federal prosecutor William Hogan led the campaign to dismantle the El Rukns. However, authorities later discovered that Hogan had engaged in illegal activity during the investigations. “Three judges found he had engaged in misconduct. [. . .] [Hogan] allowed drug use and other illicit behavior by gang members who had turned government informants.” (Cohen pg. B7, 1998). As a result of Hogan’s “botching” of the case, new trials were ordered for 13 El Rukns. The Justice Department then suspended and fired Hogan.
In the early 1990s the name Almighty Black P. Stone Nation resurfaced on the streets, though as stated, groups incorporating the name “Blackstone” had operated throughout the 1980s alongside the El Rukns. Many factions and sub-groups emerged, both during the time of Fort’s first incarceration and after his second incarceration. The recognized leaders of the ABPSN since Fort’s transfer to Marion Federal Prison have been his sons, Watkeeta “Prince Watkeeta” Valenzuela and Antonio “Prince Angeil” Fort.
Fort's main stronghold was an area in the South Shore community referred to as “Terror Town.” He was known to be a ruthless by despotic leader. He was beaten, with the orders from Jeff Fort, for using drugs and running the gang in an improper fashion. In 1997, Prince Angiel was killed by his generals due to conflicts over drug taxation. His operations were then taken over by “Prince” Kenyatta White. One of the primary collabo -rators (if not the primary leader) in his death was Jabari Brown, a BPS general who ran a contingent of in the suburbs of Dixmoor and Harvey. Some rival factions, such as the No Limit Stones and Maniac Stones, started in the wake of Antonio Fort’s demise. In March 2006, Kenyatta White was convicted of murdering Aramein Brown. According to the federal affidavit, Brown was an “associate” of White’s, who was suspected of wearing a wire in cooperation with the federal government in their investigation.
Fort's younger son, Prince Watkeeta, has controlled the Englewood/New City area known as “Moe-Town” from the early-to-mid 1990s. Moe-Town is considered to be the gang’s headquarters since the wake of the Rukn federal takedown. Watkeeta was arrested on drug conspiracy charges in 1996, and convicted in 1997. He is currently serving time in federal prison. John "Striker" Burnon then became the chief for the Moe-Town area. In 1998 he was arrested on attempted robbery and murder charges after an altercation with undercover ATF and police officers. His removal from the streets led to turmoil within his turf and several more factions sprung up, all trying to take control. This prompted an investigation which led to several other top Black P. Stone leaders being arrested in 1999 in Operation Mo Down; a Chicago Police Department operation with the intent of destroying the then current gang leadership.
Bases of Operation: The ABPSN is the second largest gang on the south-side of Chicago, where they primarily operate. Their main stronghold is in the north Englewood/New City (Sherman Park) area known as “Mo-Town” (also spelled Moe-Town?). After the federal prosecutions of the El Rukns, this became their headquarters and in the early 1990s, Jeff Fort’s son, Watketa, was running a drug corner in the area on 53rd and Bishop. The Jet Black Stones, under Jackie “Jack Black” Kelly also operate in the eastern portion of Mo-Town along Halsted Avenue and along South Wallace Avenue and their territory is dubbed the same name. The Rubenite Stones operate in the western portion of Mo Town in the vicinity of Garfield (55th) and Ashland. They’ve had sporadic conflicts with the Almighty BPSN, who are under the control of Watketa.
The Stones second major base of operations is located in South Shore in an area dubbed “Terror Town.” This branch was under the control of Antonio “Prince Angiel” Fort. After Fort was assassinated, Maniac Stones began to operate inthe area of 74th and Phillips and another faction emerged calling themselves the No Limit Stones, who operate on East 83rd Street.
The Stones are also heavily concentrated along West 87th Street, and control the corridor from South Commercial to South Damen with maybe three blocks as an exception (thearea of 87th & Vincennes, which is controlled by Gangster Disciples). They have bases of influence in Kenwood-Oakland, New City, Englewood, South Chicago, Aurburn-Gresham, Grand Crossing, Hyde Park, Stony Island Park, Jackson Park, Woodlawn, West Chesterfield, Princeton Park, Burnside, Beverly, Washington Heights, Gage Park, Wrightwood, Ashburn, Chicago Lawn, Altgeld Gardens, Pullman and West Pullman. The Stones also are concentrated on the west side in the Lawndale and Austin communities as well on the north side in the Wicker Park, Lakeview, Uptown, Edgewater, Rogers Park, North Town and West Rogers Park/West Ridge communities. They also have a heavy presence in the suburbs Harvey and Evanston and several states throughout the U.S. such as California, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin.
Method of Operation/Culture: In the 1960s, the Stones were known for their red berets and shades, usually complete with leather jackets. As the El Rukns, the gang dawned red-felt fez’s and robes. Today, the red and black is worn by the Stones frequently. The Stones engage in “gang banging” and “representing” perhaps more frequently than any other black gang. Popular clothing worn by the Stones are Chicago Bulls, Cincinnati Reds, Kansas City Chiefs, and Dallas Cowboys (for the five point star) apparel. Nike Air Jordans, Converse Chuck Taylors, Adiddas Shelltops, and other popular footwear. They also wear t-shirts with gang graffiti airbrushed on them, black hooded sweatshirts, and fatigues. Other popular clothes worn by Stones include Karl Kani, Mecca, and Fubu.
Stones refer to each other as “Mo/Moe” most commonly, but also “brother”, “Stone”, "Sir," or even "G.” To put emphasis on something they “put it on Chief”, or “on Stone.” Common phrases include “Stone Runnit”, which has been uttered for decades as well as “CMC/Chief Malik Crazy.” Other common Stone slogans are "All is Well", "Face the East, Crush the Beast," "BPS, Fuck the Rest," "Red and Black get your Head Cracked," and "Key 20." Aliases that the BPS use for their mob is "Brothers," "Moes," and "Cold Soldier Army." The word "Mo(e)" is derived from the word "Moorish" (as in Moorish Science Temple) and as such they considered themselves "Moors", though when "Ebonicized" it took on the sound "Mo." Stones sets or "decks" are supposed to hold weekly meetings, usually on Fridays, known as "service." Gang issues are discussed at these meetings, which are usually held in a private place. Common "People" gang references especially used by Stones including "demo" or "demonstration" which can mean anything from business to "whats happening" to gathering and "representing." As supposed Muslims, Stones are forbidden from eating pork, wearing perms, and claim to pray to the east (before “hits” or murders on a rivalgang, Stones do in fact often engage in a prayer).
Stones disrespect Gangster Disciples in everyday jargon and action. They refer to them as “cypes” and “cold-bricks” and often tag GDK (Gangster Disciple Killer) in their graffiti. Transversely, Stones are given the disrespectful name of “rocks” and “pebbles” by GDs and other adversaries.
The Stones are known for infighting. Its common that when members have disagreements, they “box it out” to settle disputes. Also they are supposed to give each other eye contact when doing their handshake, and a high ranking Stone can give a chest shot or mouth-shot to a member who does not give him eye contact.
The Black P. Stones shake up (do their gang handshake) with each other when greeting each other. First they form the pyramid with the thumb and index finger then use all five fingers (give each other “five”) and use their fist to pound the left side of their chest (their heart). Their hand-sign is the outward raising of all five fingers, representing the “five-pointed star/five points,” and sometimes they also form a fist and hit their chest (heart) as a sign of dedication or seriousness. they also form the pyramid using the thumbs and index-fingers of two hands. Its contended that while many black gang no longer engage in active gang-banging (representing their gang or disrespecting another gang in public ) the BPSN are one of the few to still adamantly do so. Drug dealing is the major source of income for the Black P. Stones. As the El Rukns, the gang sold cocaine and “t’s and blues” and heroin. Today many sets sell crack cocaine, powder cocaine, and marijuana. Operation Mo Down was an investigation that resulted in the arrests of several Stones in Mo-Town for narcotics trafficking. The gang also engages in assault and battery. When rival gang members are spotted in Stone territory their subject themselves to a beating, and in some cases, shooting or ramming (intentionally driving ones car into another to hurt an individual and damage the car).
The Stones also gamble,usually by shooting dice and betting on dog fights, which are staged by the gang. The gang has also been known to engage in graffiti, assault, battery, theft, armed robbery, kidnapping, extortion, and arson.
The Stones’ main enemy has been the Gangster Disciples for the last forty years or so. They also are known to feud to Black Disciples, Boss Pimps, and fellow people alliance mobs, Vice Lords and Mickey Cobras. However it should be noted that in some areas of the city Black P. Stones get along and even share turf with VLs and MCs. They’ve also feuded with Latino gangs such as the Saints, La Raza, Latin Souls, Latin Dragons, and Satan Disciples. However, the BPSN considers itselfs "first cousins" with the Latin Kings and the gangs ride tight together in prison and often attend each others social functions.
Iconography: The pyramid with an eye and 21 “bricks” was adopted in the late 1960s and symbolizes the “Main (21) Twenty-One” founders, of the Almighty Black P. Stone Nation -the confederation of several gangs into one “nation”, discussed earlier. This symbol persisted until a brick was “removed” as a form of de-recognition of Mickey Cogwell. In other words, today, the Stones actually have twenty bricks, or “keys,” within the pyramid. The pyramid symbol was probably adopted from the U. S. dollar, which traces its origin to Masonic orders. The crescent moon and five-pointed star was taken from the Islamic faith, and five “points” were developed –Love, Truth, Faith, Justice, and Freedom. The number 7 may indicate “holiness.” It may also signify 7 branches of Stones. The third eye represents vision and a new understanding. The sword represents strength. The official colors of the gang, black, red, and green, come from the black nationalist/Pan-Africanist “flag” developed by Marcus Garvey. Nevertheless, most members wear only black and red, and for whatever reason disregard the color green.
Hierarchal Organization: As previously stated, the Blackstone Ranger’s two principle leaders from the outset were Jeff Fort and Eugene Hairston. Hairston’s official rank was initially that of “president,”while Fort’s official rank was that of “vice-president.” Other ranking members included “warlords” George “Watusi” Rose and William “Sweet” Troop, and “public relations” Lamar “Bop Daddy” Bell.
When the ABPSN was formed along with the Main 21 commission, or board in 1966, itinitially included: (1) Eugene “Bull” Hairston, (2) Jeff “Angel” Fort, (3) Adam “Leto” Batiste (4) Melvin “Lefty” Baily, (5) Lamar “Bop Daddy” Bell, (6) Charles E. “Benbolaman” Bey, (7) Henry “Mickey Cobb” Cogwell, (8)Charles “Bosko” Franklin, (9) Bernard “Droop” Green, (10) Leroy “Baby Bull” Hairston, (11) Herman “Moose” Holmes, (12) Slyvester “Hutch” Hutchins, (13) Lee “Stone” Jackson, (14) Moses “Dog” Jackson, (15) “Cool” Johnnie Jones, (16) Paul “The Preacher” Martin, (17) Andrew “A.D.” McChristian, (18) Cornell “Corny” Steele, (19) Herbert “Thunder” Stevens, (20) William “Sweet” Troop, and (21) Lawrence "Tom Tucker" White. Other high-ranking members who were not initial members of the Main-21 commission (but may have served on the commission later) included: James “Mall Wali” Battles, Theotis “Thee” Clark, Edwin “Caboo” Caldwell, Melvin Mackey, George “Porgi” Martin, and George “Watusi” Rose. In the 1968, George “Watusi” Rose was allegedly kicked out of the BPSN for drug use. The following year, he was caught with one-quarter million dollars worth of drugs by law enforcement. Afterwards, he began to cooperate with law enforcement in their attempt to dismantle the Stones. In 1970, McChristian, along with two underlings, were convicted of the 1968 shooting of Disciple leader David Barksdale. Theotis Clark would succeed Mickey Cogwell as the leader of the Cobras Stones after Cogwell was killed in 1977, allegedly at the behest ofJeff Fort. The gang would later be known as the Mickey Cobras.
By 1969, however, there appeared to a shuffling of leadership. According to a Tribune article, the Main 21 remained in tact at this time. But names as “ acting president” of the gang Charles Bey, “acting vice president” Johnny Fort, “warlord” Melvin Burley,and “spiritual leader” Paul “the Preacher” Martin. There was also apparently about 200Ambassadors who served as leaders. The articles goes on to claim the Stones numbered at about 5,000 members. Again, the El Rukns as an entity probably served as a higher-tiered, more sophisticated leadership structure for the already existing Black P. Stones Rangers Nation. In otherwords, during the era that Fort established this new gang identity -–from 1977 to 1989--there still existed a strong contingent of Stones on the streets. The Rukn leadershipconsisted of almost an entirely new group of leaders. Assumedly, Fort had cast asidemany of the Main 21 leaders while its possible that quite had been jailed, retired, or diedby 1977. Of course, Cogwell was killed in 1977 and the Main 21 commission wasdisbanded. With Fort’s adoption of Islam and subsequent transformation of the Black P.Stone Ranger Nation to the El Rukns, a restructuring of leadership, complete with anIslamic-oriented ranking system was in order. The Almighty Black P-Stone Nation website informs us the El Rukns hierarchy consisted of a three-tiered ranking system which included the al-Shura, Ambassadors, and the Mufti. Among the al-Shura, consisted of Jeff Fort (who know adopted the title “Imam Abdul Malik Ka’bah), Andrew Fort, Jimmie Fort, Larry “Akbar El” Fort, Alan Knox, and Alphonso “Kimani” Small.
The Ambassadors included Rodell Banks, Thomas Bates, James “Mia Wali” Battles, Darrell Cannon, Jackie “Egee” Clay, Rico Cranshaw, Jerome “Jake” Crowder, Floyd Davis, William Doyle, Harry “Be Bop” Evans, Ray Ferguson, Eddie “Wado” Franklin, Bernard “Bantu” Green, Charles Green, Law “Cain” Griffin, Samuel “Ishaiek” Knox, Walter“Pollard” Bud, Henry “Tim” Timothy, James Walker, and Edmond “Ranger” Williams.
Members of the Mufti included Henry Andrews, Tony Alvin, Robert Bonner, JulianBrown, George Carter III, Lawrence Crowder, Tramell Davis, Herbert Dinkins, Curley Hall, Ronald Jennings, Earl Hawkins, J.L. Houston, Derrick Kees, Arthur Proctor,Michael Sardin, Michael “Big Mike” Scott, Moses Steele, James “Mish Wa” Speights, Anthony “Hajari” Sumner, Clinton Thompson, and Edward Walker. Other high-ranking leaders included Ricky “Crazy Horse” Bell, Rudy “Little Horse” Bell, Roger “General Tu” Bowman, Jeff Boyd, David Carter, Edgar Cooksey, Henry Leon “Toomba” Harris, Roderick Haygood, Victor Johnson, Michael Joiner, Melvin Mayes, Leon McAnderson, Orville Miller, Derrick Porter and Noah Robinson. (http://www.geocities.com/jeff_fort/rukn.html accessed October 2005).
Later, after the crippling of the Rukns by the federal government, the gang incorporated other hierarchical titles: Mahdis (officers), Iquamms (clerics, consisting of the Muftis, Sharieffs, and Amirs), Al-akbars (generals), and other ranks, which may have varied depending on the faction and set.
All of these aforementioned men were indicted by the feds on racketeering charges in 1989, and all (save those who turned states evidence) were sentenced to lengthy terms in federal prison.
In September 1996, four high-ranking El Rukn generals were re-convicted on a slew of charges stemming from the 1989 federal indictment. Due to Hogan’s malfeasance, they were granted re-trails. Sammy Knox (then 45) was sentenced to life in prison, while Jeff Boyd (then 47) received a 50-year prison term. Charles Green and Melvin Mays were also convicted on several charges and sentenced to lengthy prison terms. “All of thedefendants, except Mays, who was a fugitive until , were convicted of identicalcharges in 1991. But in 1993, a judge ordered new trials because prosecutors knew that cooperating witnesses were taking drugs and having sex while in custody” (Gillis pg. 13, 1996).In 1998, Noah Robinson was re-convicted of racketeering and drug conspiracy charges, as well as witness retaliation and tampering. Today, Jeff “Chief Malik” Fort is considered the Nations’s “chief” while Watkeeta Venezuela is the “prince.” In March 2006, “Prince” Kenyatta White was convicted ofmurdering Aramein Brown. According to the federal affidavit, Brown was an “associate” of White’s, who was suspected of wearing a wire in cooperation with the federal government in their investigation. At the time law enforcement identified him as the second highest ranking Stone on the streets. Today, the rankings seem to be less complex as they simply appoint a "Prince" for the entire , usually from either Terror Town or Mo Town, each set is then ran by a "General" and accompanied by a "Mufti" and "Lawman."
Factions: There are several branches of the Black P. Stones. The branch that descended from the El Rukns are the Almighty Black P. Stone Nation (ABPSN). The gang went by this moniker, Almighty Black P. Stone Rangers, from the mid-1960s to the late 1970s. Althought Jeff Fort is not able to control the gang’s day-to-day operation, he is still considered the “Chief” of the Nation. His son, Watkeeta, is considered the Prince. They make up about 80% of the entire "nation" and as such are considered the main/ original/ traditional branch.
The factions include:
The Apache Stones, also known as the Apache P. Stone Nation (APSN), were one of the original groups to join the Almighty Black P. Stone Nation is the mid-to late 1960s. The gang was originally known as the Apaches and may have begun on the west side as early as the early 1950s. By the 1960s they had a strong presence in the Robert Taylor Homes on the South Side by the early 1960s. A 1955 Chicago Tribune article tells us that the Apaches had a clubhouse located at 3409 West 13th Street. The article mentions Louis “Chief Crazy Horse” Shepard, who may have been the gang’s leader at this time (Chicago Tribune, Dec.10th, 1955).
However, its not certain if this gang, which seems to have been based on the west side, was related to the other incarnation of the Apaches, who joined the Blackstone Nation. That group, we know, was led by Lawrence White, (alias: Tom Tucker). In 1982, it is said that the Apaches branched off the El Rukns or Almighty Black P. Stone Nation. “They were one of the first gangs to distinguish themselves and break away from the Black P. Stones” (http://chicagogangs.org/index.php?pr=APACHE _STONES). It is believed that their first set when they established their independence was 79th & Essex, within Terror Town. The gang wears black and brown, which were the Apaches original colors before joining up with the Black P. Stone Nation.
Throughout the 1980's they were known as the Apache Rangers and were present predominantly on the east side of the city. A popular case occurred with members were convicted for killing two Mexican Americans- a husband and wife- who allegedly were the arms dealers. The intent of the murder was to rob the dealer of weapons. One of those convicted, Aaron Patterson, would later have his convicted overturned and run for alderman in 2007. He convicted that year on weapons charges, and some say he was acting as the leader for the Apache Stones. Members throw the “A” hand-sign in addition to the “five.” The gang has a heavy presence in South Chicago as well as the suburbs of Rockford, IL, and Calumet City. Their enemies include Gangster Disciples, Boss Pimps, as well as renegade Stone groups- Jabari Stones and Rubenite Stones. The gang nevertheless considers itself an “outlaw” branch, though sources indicate they get along with the Almighty BPSN.
79th & Essex "Terror Town"
86th & Emerald?
87th & Wabash “Bash Town”
87th & Euclid/Jeffery “Outlaw City”
School & Central, Independence & Central, Johnston & Cunningham, Central & Auburb in Calumet City, IL
Drexel & Ingleside, and Sibley Blvd. in South Holland, IL
The Gangster Stones were started by Herman “Moose” Holmes on the west side of the city. They were started in the early 1960's and were one of the original gangs in the ABPSN confederacy. Henry Brown controlled them throughout the 80s and early 90s in the Henry Horner Homes. At one time they were known as the Gangster Stone Vice Lords, but were not an official faction; however by the early 90's they were at war with the Vice Lords. Subsequently, they dropped the "Vice Lord" surname. Their main base was in the 140 North Wood building in the Henry Horner Homes. Daryl Abney is said to be the current leader in the correctional facilities and it is speculated that Moose may still have some control of the mob on the streets.
103rd & Bensly
Henry Horner Homes (Lake & Wood area)
Jet Black Stones:
Jackie “Jack Black” Kelly is the leader of the Jet Black Stones. He started this group of a building previoulsy controlled by the Black P. Stones at 4445 South Evans (a part of Washington Park scattered sites). Their "set name" was originally "Ject (short for project) Black Stones, but over time it became Jet Black Stones. They later established a foothold in the Sherman Park/New City neighborhood along South Halsted, which the Stones had already dubbed "Mo Town." Members of this gang identity themselves with a black five-pointed star. In the late 90's, there was tensions between three main Stone factions in the Mo Town area, the Almighty BPSN, Jet Black Stones, and Rubenite Stones. The gang has since squashed their beef and the "Jets" are said to be a respected "faction" of the ABPSN.
47th & Cottage Grove
51st & Wallace and 53rd-54th & Halsted “Mo-Town”
44th & Cottage Grove "The 4-5" in the Washington Park Homes
49th & Cottage Grove (shared w/MC's)
The Jabari Stones were a group of Stones under the leadership of Jabari Brown in the mid to late 1990's, who operated in the suburbs of Harvey and Dixmoor. Brown had the rank of General and after establishing a relationship with BPS "prince, Antonio Fort, his name became somewhat popular throughout the "isolated" south suburbs. Originally from Fort's home base, Terror Town, Brown had his group refer to themselves as "Jabari Stones" as a means to establish a separate identity from the other Harvey Black P. Stones, most of which were under the leadership of Tyrone Rice. However, they wre really just a group of sets or "clique", not really a faction or renegade offshoot in the strict sense. In 1997, Brown (allegedly in collaboration with several other BPSN generals)had Antonio Fort killed. As a result, the older BPS hierarchy ordered all the Jabari Stones to be killed, though most simply renounced Jabari Brown. Brown was incarcerated for murder in 1998 and is currently serving a lengthy sentence. The Stones under his leadership fell under a new general and discontinued the use of the "Jabari Stone" moniker, as such, the entity is really no longer is existence.
82nd & Coles "Angel City" (81st-to-83rd, Commercial-to Exchange)
105th & Avenue M “10/5”
Homan & Crystal (shared w/BPS and LK)
Glendale Heights, IL
The Maniac Stones have a heavy influence in the suburb of Harvey, IL, and in the South Shore and Roseland communities. They were one of the original gangs to form the ABPSN in 1966.
74th & Phillips “Terror Town”
83rd & Brandon
105th & Forest /106th & Vernon “Murderville”
117th & Laflin “Murda Block”
No Limit Stones:
The No Limit Stones are a relatively new branch formed in the late 1990s; their only known set is around the area of 83rd & Colfax. The gang presumably adopted their moniker from a New Orleans-based Hip-hop record label that was popular in the late 90s. They had dealings with Jabari Brown. He, the same man who founded the Jabari Stones, founded the NLBPSN in 1997.In the late 90's, Brian "Kaos" Works began to preside with the No Limits.
83rd & Colfax “Terror Town”
Black Stone Villians had 56th & Stewart.
105th & Church/105th & Vincennes Ave. “10-5 Renegades”
The Rubenite Stones were started by Randy “Rube” Dillard in the correctional facilities in the 1980s. Rube was on death row when he founded the gang. He was one of more violent Stones and was linked to the stabbing of John Wayne Gacy while on Death Row, due to a murder(s) he committed in 1971. When Hairston was assassinated in the Ida B. Wells housing projects in 1988, many Stone sets blamed the El Rukn leadership (Jeff Fort). Dillard claimed to be “King of the Stones” due to the fact that he was slated as the second in command to Eugene “Bull” Hairston. Throughout the 90's the Rubenite Stones controlled a small contingent of Stones in the the Almighty BPS's stronghold, "Mo-Town." There, they engaged in sporadic warfare with the rest of the Stones and as a result their reputation became known throughout the city, although they never more than fifty members strong. In 1999, the CPD launched Operation Mo-Down in part due to the factional violence between the Rubes, The ABPSN as well as the Jet Black Stones. It should be noted Dillard made it off death row somehow and was released from prison in the late 2000s.
55th street, Paulina to Ashland
57th & Justine
The Titanic Stones originated in 1966 by Randy “Rube” Dillard and Herbert “Thunder” Stevens, who held a position in the Main 21. Their bases were 39th & Lake Park and 43rd & Indiana. Rube ran the 43rd street branch and Thunder ran the 39th street branch. In 1971 they were both convicted on kidnapping and murder charges. The gang was in an intense war with the El Rukns at this time Stevens received a life sentence and Dillard was to be executed. In 1972, Jeff Fort was sentenced to time for misuse of government funds. From 1972 to 1974 he did time with Stevens in Statesville. Rube Dillard went to death row in Menard; Eugene “Chief Bull” Hairston was also in this institution and had been since 1968 for solicitation to commit murder (against Disciple chief, David Barksdale). Fort was transferred to Leavenworth Federal Prison in 1974 to serve his federal prison (he had to first serve out his State sentence). Fort left Thunder in charge of the Stones in Statesville while Bull ran the Stones in Menard. There was tension between Fort and Hairston because after Hairston was incarcerated, Fort ordered the Stones to severe ties with him, leaving him as sole leader of the Black P. Stone Nation. Fort even ordered the hit on Paul “The Prophet” Martin, who was Bull’s closest follower in 1968. After his murder, Fort was able to take control of the mob. Chaos ensued as Bull jockeyed for chief position. Menawhile, the Titanics engaged in a bloody war with the El Rukns on the streets for they had claimed loyalty to Bull, who was eventually gunned down in the Ida B. Wells housing project in 1988.
Leroy “Lil Bull” Hairston, brother of Eugene “Chief Bull” Hairston, Omar “Bull” Hairston, his son, and Robert "Button" East are the current leaders of the Titanic Stones faction, also known as the Titanic Stones Nation (TSN) and, alternatively, the Titanic P. Stones Nation (TPSN). The gang has territory in Hyde Park, South Shore, and South Chicago.
52nd & Drexel/53rd & Cottage Grove Ave
67th & Chappel “Murder Show”
82nd & Baltimore/82nd & Houston
39th & Lake Park "Twin Towers" in the Lake Parc Place projects
43rd & Indiana/43rd & Michigan
Formerly known as the Puerto Rican(P.R.) Stones, then Future Stones, this gang predominantly Latino and was formed in the correctional facilities. They can be looked at as an entirely different "nation" because of differences in manifesto/literature, colors, ethnicity and symbols. Therefore, we dedicate a separate article/analysis for this gang.
----out of state factions----
Black P. Stone Bulls
Blood Stone Villians and Blood P. Stones Jungles:
The Black P. Stones first emerged in Los Angeles, California in 1969 as a community organization. Their base of influence was in the West Adams area were started by T. Rodgers. Over the years they grew into one of the larger street gangs in South Los Angeles affiliating with the Bloods and forming an inner-alliance known as the Blood Stone Villains. The BSVs now operate in many states across the US, probably in a loosely aligned confederacy. Today the Stones operate in the West Adams area and an area known as the Jungles the once exclusive area (during the 1950s and 1960s) officially known as Baldwin Village, which has seen 28 murders and more than 1,500 assaults from 2000 to 2005. There are and estimated 700 members of the Black P. Stones in California, 400 of whom occupy Baldwin Village. In November 2005, the F.B.I. and Los Angeles Police Department carried out raids against alleged Black Stones members accused of conspiracy and drug trafficking in a joint effort called Operation Stone Cold.
<_“Stoneville,” Touhy to Howard, Western Ave. to Wolcott Ave.
Howard & Bell Ave.
Howard & Damen Ave.
Jarvis & Damen Ave._>
Pratt & Ashland (shared w/Outlaw Bloods)
Albion & Clark “CMC”
Devon & Bell Ave.
Peterson & Damen
Hollywood Ave. & Kenmore Ave.
Bryn Mawr Ave.& Winthrop Ave.
Argyle & Kenmore
Wilson & Magnolia
Wilson & Dover
Barry & Tripp (Bebe's)
Diversey Ave. & Clybourn area in the Lathrop Homes (shared w/LKs and CVLs)
Crystal & Leavitt “Eastville” (shared w/CVLs)
Crystal & Homan (shared w/Latin Stones and LKs)
Evergreen & Sedgwick in the Marshall Fields Apts. (shared w/CVLs and MCs)
Augusta & Laramie
Chicago Ave. & Latrobe Ave.
Ohio & Lockwood
Ferdinand & Laramie Ave.
25th & Washtenaw in the Lawndale Courts (shared w/CVLs)
39th & Lake Park in the Lake Parc Homes/Lakefront Property "Twin Towers"
47th & Cottage Grove
51st & Blackstone (shared w/4CHs)
<_”Mo-Town,” 51st to 55th, Hermitage to Wallace, 55th to 57th, Ashland to Bishop
51st & Ashland
51st & Racine
51st & Sangamon
51st & Halsted
51st & Wallace (Jet Black Stones)
52nd & Marshfield “The Deuce” (shared w/LKs)
52nd & Loomis Blvd.
53rd & Racine
53rd to 54th & Bishop
53rd to 54th & Halsted (Jet Black Stones)
54th & Laflin
54th & May
54th & Union
55th & Ashland (Rubenite Stones)
55th & Racine
55th & Carpenter
57th & Justine "Outlaws" (Rubenite Stones)_>
52nd & Drexel/53rd & Cottage Grove (Titanic Stones)
53rd & Blackstone/Harper
57th & Maplewood
62nd & Cottage Grove “Chief Town”
62nd & Kimbark “Crank Town”
63rd & Campbell
64th to 67th & Blackstone “Mecca”
67th & Chappel "Murder Show" (Titanic Stones)
68th & Winchestor "Ghost Town"
69th & Laflin
69th & Indiana "Kuwait City"
71stpl. & Blackstone
73rdpl. & Stony Island “Rock Island” (shared w/CVLs and 4CHs) ?
75th & Jeffery
75th & Stony Island
<_”Terror Town,” 73rd to 83rd, Yates Blvd. to Colfax Ave and 74th to 77th Colfax Ave to Exchange Ave
74th & Kingston
74th & Phillips (Maniac Stones)
75th & Yates
75th & Colfax
76th & Phillips
78th & Kingston
79th & Yates
79th & Essex (Apache Stones)
79th & Colfax
83rd & Colfax (No Limit Stones)_>
79th & Homan
79th & Talman “T-Block”
79th street, Winchestor to Hoyne “Terror Dome (shared w/CVLs)
79th & Racine "Brothersville"
79th & Halsted “Trap Town”
79th & Paxton
81st & Francisco “The Sco”
81st & Marshfield
82nd & Emerald “STB”
82nd & Escanaba “Bad Black Brothers” (shared w/CVLs)?
81st-to-83rd, Commercial-to Exchange (Latin Stones)
82nd & Houston/82nd & Baltimore (Titanic Stones)
83rd & Damen ?
83rd & May
83rd & Brandon (Maniac Stones)
84th & Vincennes “Stone Terrace”
85th & Loomis (Foster Park)
<_”Duck Town,” 87th to 89th Damen to Aberdeen
87th & Winchestor
87th & Racine
87th & Aberdeen
89th & Justine_>
<_”Fin Town,” 86th to 90th, Halsted to Eggleston
86th & Emerald (Apache Stones)?
87th & Halsted
87th & Wallace
88th & Lowe_>
87th & St. Lawrence “STL”
87th & Euclid/87th & Jeffery “Outlaw City” (Apache Stones)
87th & Saginaw/87th & Marquette “Medina”
87th & Wabash/87th & State "Bash Town" (Apache Stones)
87th to 89th & Cottage Grove Ave.
87th to 89th & Burley in the Millgate Apts. "Buck Town"
90th to 91st & Escanaba “Slaughter Town”
91st & Harvard in the Princeton Park Apts. ?
<_”Rack City,” 90th to 95th, Halsted to Eggleston
92nd & Union
92nd to 93rd & Wallace (Wallace Park)
92nd & Eggleston
93rd & Halsted_>
92nd to 93rd & Harper “Crazy Harper Blackstones” (shared w/GDs)
93rd & King Dr. “9-Tray”
93rd & Avalon
93rd & Muskeegon “The Ske”
<_”Nateville,” 95th to 103rd, Beverly Ave. to Vincennes Ave.
95th & Bishop
98th & Throop
99th & Loomis
103rd & Vincennes Ave._>
95th & Woodlawn ?
98th & Cottage Grove Ave. “Grove Heights”
100th to 103rd, St. Lawrence to Dauphin "Sin City"
101st & Cottage Grove Ave. in the London Townhomes “London Town”
102nd to 103rd & Cottage Grove Ave. (Gately Park)
105th & Church/105th & Vincennes (Renegade Stones)
105th & Hale
105th & Edbrooke
105th & Indiana Ave. (shared w/4CHs)
105th & Forest/106th & Vernon “Murdaville” (Maniac Stones)
105th & Avenue M (Latin Stones)
107th & Indiana Ave.
107th & Michigan Ave.
<_”Alameenville,” 111th to 113th, Wentworth to Michigan Ave. (area shared w/CVLs and MCs)
111th & Wentworth
112th & Perry
113th & Michigan
113th & Eggleston_>
<_“Halsted Street Villians,” 112thpl. to 115th, Carpenter to Halsted
113th & Carpenter
113th & Morgan
115th & Halsted_>
117th & Laflin “Murda Block” (Maniac Stones)
127th & Lowe?
128thpl. & Lowe Ave. “The 8”
Calumet City, IL (Apache Stones)
Calumet Park, IL
Ford Heights, IL
Hoffman Estates, IL
Maywood, IL (Maniac Stones)
Peoria, IL “P-Town”
Rockford, IL (Apaches Stones & Titanic Stones)
University Park, IL
Lewis Ave. and Sunset in Waukegan, IL “The Set”
Little Rock and Oak Forest, Arkansas (BPS & Blood Stone Villians)
Los Angeles (Blood P. Stone Jungles), Oakland (Blood Stones), and Sacramento (Blood Stones), California
Jacksonville, Florida (Blood Stone Villians)
Gary, Hammond, and Lake Station, Indiana
Detroit and Flint, Michigan (BPS and El Rukns)
St. Louis, Missouri (BPS and El Rukns)
Minneapolis & St. Paul, Minnesota
Edenwald Projects in Bronx and Harlem, New York (Black P. Stone Bulls)
Cleveland & Columbus, Ohio
Memphis and Millington, Tennessee
Beloit, Kenosha, Madison, Milwaukee and Racine, Wisconsin
Highland & Bell
Ida B. Wells housing projects
40th & Oakenwald and 42nd & Lake Park in the Lake Michigan Homes (El Rukns)
43rd & Michigan (Titanics)
44th & Cottage Grove "The 4-5" in the Washington Park Homes
67th & Clyde
83rd & Cottage Grove
Almighty Black P-Stones Nation [website].
Cohen, Sharon. Journal Star. October 18th, 1998.
Fry, Reverend John R. Locked Out Americans: A Memoir. (Harper and Row: New York), 1973.
Gillis, Michael. Chicago Sun-Times. September 27th, 1996.
Knox, George W. Gang Profile Update: The Black P. Stone Nation (BPSN).
Ruchula, Cali. “Jeff Fort.” Diacritica.com/sobaka/index.html
(Accessed from http://www.diacritica.com/sobaka/dossier/jfort.html) 3 January 2006.
Sale, R. T. The Blackstone Rangers: A Reporter's Account of Time Spent with the Street
Gang on Chicago's South Side (Random House: New York), 1971.
Ruchula, Cali. “Jeff Fort.” Diacritica.com/sobaka/index.html (Accessed from http://www.diacritica.com/sobaka/dossier/jfort.html) 3 January 2006.
Sale, R. T. The Blackstone Rangers: A Reporter's Account of Time Spent with the Street
Gang on Chicago's South Side (Random House: New York), 1971.